Background: To evaluate the utility of serum and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in depicting an event of contrast material-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients who received iodinated contrast media, gadoterate meglumine, or radiopharmaceutical technetium-99m (99mTc) and to evaluate the protective effect exerted by isotonic saline infusion, sodium bicarbonate administration, or N-acetylcysteine administration.
Methods: Institutional ethics committee approval was given, and informed consent was obtained. One hundred twenty patients were enrolled in a prospective study and divided into three groups: iomeprol group, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging group (gadoterate meglumine), and renal scintigraphy group (99mTc). They randomly received N-acetylcysteine, physiologic saline, or sodium bicarbonate. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used.
Results: In the MR imaging and renal scintigraphy groups, there were significant changes in serum creatinine and NGAL levels, and there were no cases of CIN. In the iomeprol group, an early rise in NGAL was found, while serum creatinine level changes occurred 24 hours after contrast material administration. At ROC analysis, NGAL showed high sensitivity and specificity (serum NGAL: area under the curve, 0.995; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.868, 0.992; urinary NGAL: area under the curve, 0.992; 95% CI: 0.925, 1.000) in identifying CIN 8 hours after iomeprol administration. Regression analysis showed that NGAL independently predicted CIN. Administration of N-acetylcysteine, sodium bicarbonate, or physiologic saline did not influence NGAL level.
Conclusions: NGAL depicted CIN in patients who received iodinated contrast material within 8 hours of contrast material administration.