About 30-50% patients develop acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery, which is still diagnosed by serum creatinine on clinic. However, the increase of serum creatinine is insensitive and delayed. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) are early biomarkers for AKI in patients after cardiac surgery.
Thirty-three cases undergoing cardiac surgery were classified into an AKI group and non-AKI group, according to the AKI definition (> 26.5 micromol/L increase of serum creatinine, more than or equal to 50% increase of serum creatinine within 48 h, or a reduction in urine output < 0.5 mL/Kg per hour for more than six hours). The concentrations of serum NGAL, urine NGAL, and urine IL-18 at different time-points were measured.
Nine cases (27.27%) developed postoperative AKI, but diagnosis with serum creatinine was 12-48 h postoperation. The concentrations of serum NGAL were not significantly increased postoperation. The concentrations of urine NGAL and IL-18 were significantly increased in the AKI group, which reached the peak at 2-4 h postoperation, and a more significant difference could be seen after correction for urine creatinine. The concentrations of urine NGAL and IL-18 2 h postoperation, either corrected for urine creatinine or not, showed good sensitivity and specificity. Increased levels of urine NGAL and IL-18 2 h postoperation were significantly correlated with increased level of serum creatinine 12 h postoperation. Logistic regression analysis showed that urine NGAL corrected for urine creatinine 2 h postoperation and urine IL-18 2 h postoperation emerged as powerful independent predictors of AKI after cardiac surgery.
The concentrations of urine NGAL and IL-18 could be useful biomarkers for AKI in patients after cardiac surgery, especially after correction for urine creatinine.
PMID: 18925531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]